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Glossary of Value Education


COMPILED BY : Prof. Ulfat jan
Deductive reasoning
Reasoning in which one proceeds from general to specific.
Syllogism
A thinking process establishing a logical relationship between a major premise, a minor premise and a conclusion.
Inductive reasoning
Reasoning going from particular to general.
Theory
A set of statements of interrelated concepts, definitions, propositions that present a systematic view of phenomena by specifying relations among variables, with the purpose of explaining and predicting the phenomena.
Research
A systematic attempt to obtain answers to meaningful questions about phenomena or event through the application of scientific procedures.
Educational Research
A systematic attempt to gain a better understanding of the educational process, generally with a view to improve its efficiency.
Basic Research
Research designed to add to an organised body of scientific knowledge. concerned with the formalation of a theory or a contribution to the existing body of knowledge.
Applied Research
Research undertaken to solve an immediate practical problem
Action Research
Research conducted by teachers, supervisors and school administration for dealing with classroom problems and improving classroom practices
Statement of Problem
It is an attempt to focus on a clear goal, has a definite place in the introductory chapter
Review of related literature
A brief resume of latest research trends related studies found in journals, magazines, abstracts to provide evidence that the researcher is familiar with what is already known and also with what is unknown or unproved
Non probability sampling
In non-probability sampling, the units are selected at the discretion of the researcher.
Jugdement or purposive sampling
When researcher selects units at his own discretion, uses judgement in selecting units, having no theoritical basis for estimating population characteristics.
Null hypothesis
Null hypothesis relates to a statistical method of interpreting conclusions about population characteristics that are inferred from the variable relationships observed in samples.
Simple random sampling
When the researcher selects or chooses individual observation or individuals in such a way that each has an equal chance of being selected and each choice is independent if any other choice
Systematic sampling
A systematic sampling means to select each nth term from a list.
Hypothesis
The presumptive statement of a proposition or a reasonable guess, based upon the available evidence, which the researcher seeks to prove through his study.
Clearly and precisely stated hypothesis
Hypothesis usually avoid the use of general terms, involving concise technical language and definitions of terms that are better defined then those in common language.
Directional hypothesis
Hypothesis which stipulate the direction of the expected differences or relationships.
Non-directional hypothesis
Hypothesis which does not specify the direction of expected differences or relationships.
To define a problem
To define a problem means to specify it in detail and with precision, to put a fence around it. To seperate it by careful distinction form like questions found in related situations of need.
Sample:
A sample is a small proportion of a population selected for observation and analysis.
Sampling:
A process by which a relatively small number of individuals or measure of individuals, objects or events is selected and analysed in order to find out something about the entire population from which it was selected
Population
A population refers to any collection of specified group of human beings or of non-human beings such as objects, educational institutions, time units, geographical areas etc. A population is any group of individuals that have one or more characteristics in common that are of interest to the researcher.
Stratified random sampling
At times the researcher subdivides the population into smaller homogenous groups to get more accurate representation. This is known as stratified random sample.
Cluster sampling
When the population of interest is infinite, when a list of the members does not exist, or when the geographical distribution of the individuals is widely scattered.
Table
A table is a systematic method of presenting statistical data in vertical columns and horizontal rows, according to some classification of subject matter
Pagination
 Pagination means to assign page number to each page or report.
Figure
Figures are devices that present statistical data in graphic form.
Meta-analysis
A relatively recent innovation that allows a researcher to combine systematically and statistically the finding of several previous studies
Variables
Variables are the conditions or characters that the experimenter manipulates, controls or observes
Independent variables
The independent variables are the conditions or characters that the experimenter manipulates or controls in his or her attempt to assertain their relationship to observed phenomena
Dependent variables
The dependent variables are the conditions or characteristics that appear, disappear or change as the experimenter introduces , removes or changes independent variable
Treatment Variables
Treatment variables are those factors that the experimenter manipulates and to which he or she assigns subjects
Attribute variables
Attribute variables are those characteristics that cannot be altered by the experimenter such as age, sex, race etc, have already been determined, but the experimenter can decide to include them or remove them as variables to be studied.
Primary Source data
Primary Source data are eyewitness accounts. They are reported by an actual observer or participant in an event
Secondary source data
Secondary sources are the reports of a person who relates the testimony of an actual witness of, or participant in an event. The writer of an secondary source was not on the scene of the event, but merely reports what the person was there said or wrote.
Intervening variables
Certain variables which cannot be controlled or measured directly may have an important effect upon the outcome. These modifying variables intervene between the cause and the effect are known as intervening variables.
Extraneous variables
Extraneous variables are those uncontrolled variables (variables not manipulated by the experimenter) that may have a significant influence upon the results of the study.
Evaluation
Evaluation is a process used to determine what has happened during a given activity or in an institution
Summative evaluation
Summative evaluation is what most people think of when they consider evaluation. Its primary purpose are to determine grades , judge teaching competence and compare curricula.
Formative evaluation
Formative evaluation is an ongoing continous process. The main purpose of formative observation is to determine the degree of mastery of a given learning task and to pinpoint the part of the task not mastered
Validity
validity is the ability of the test to measure what we want or putpet to measure.
Internal validity
internal validity is the ability of the test to the extent that the factors that have been manipulated (independent variables) actually have a genuine effect on the observed consequences (dependent variables) in the experimental settling.

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