Teaching Geography

Glossary of Teaching of Geography


COMPILED BY :Prof. bashir ahmad bhat
Abrasion
The wearing down of a land surface by moving weathered rock debries.
Absolute humidity
The amount of water vapour per unit volume of air, usually expressed in grams per cubic meter.
Absorption
In the capacity of the atmosphere to transform radiation into different form of energy instead of transmitting or reflecting it.
Abyssal Plain (deep sea plain)
The generally level area of the ocean floor that lies between about 3500m and 5500m below the surface of the ocean.
Acclimatise
To adapt or become accustomed to new environmental conditions.
Advection Fog
Fog formed by the horizontal movement of warm moist air over a cooler surface which reduces the temperature of the lower layer of the given condensation
Aeolian
Denoting the process or landforms caused by or related to the wind.
Aggradation
The process by which a land surface is built by the deposition of debris and other solid materials especially by rivers.
Agriculture
The cultivation of the soil in order to grow crops rear livestock.
Airmass
A mass of air with similar properties of temperature and moisture covering a large area of the earth's surface and bounded by fronts.
Altitude
The height of a place above mean sea level.
Anemometer
An instrument measuring atmospheric pressure.
Antarctic
The part of the earth's surface lying within the Antarctic circle.
Antarctic circle
The line or parallel of latitude 660 - 300 S.
Anticyclone
An area of high pressure in Atmosphere.
Arctic
The area of the earth's surface lying within the Arctic circle.
Arid
Denoting any climate or region in which rainfall is insufficient.
Atlas
A collection of maps bound in a volume.
Atmosphere
The layer of gases enveloping the earth.
Atmospheric pressure
The pressure exerted by the atmosphere as a result of its weight above a unit area of the earth's surface.
Axis (earth's)
A line running through the centre of the earth, connecting the North Pole with the South Pole.
Bank
The edge of river or lake.
Bar
an off shore deposit of sand, mud and shingle in the form of a ridge running roughly parallel to the coastline.
Barograph
A self recording barometer.
Barometer
An instrument for measuring atmospheric pressure.
Basalt
A fine grained dark igneous of volcanic origin.
Base level
The lowest level to which a stream or river can erode. Sea level is the most common base level.
Biography
The scientific study of the distribution of species of plants and animals.
Biosphere
That part of the earth and atmosphere where life is able to exist.
Canyon
A deep valley with steep nearly vertical sides.
Capricorn, tropic of
The parallel of latitude at 230 - 300 South.
Cartography
The science of constructing maps and charts.
Cascade
A small waterfall or a series of small waterfalls down a rock step.
Celsius scale
A temperature scale in which the temperature of melting ice is taken as 00C and temperature of boiling water as 1000.
Cereal
A cultivated grass used as human or animal food.
Chart
A map that is designed for a specific use.
Cliff
A very steep or vertical rock face.
Climate
The average weather conditions over a specific length of time, usually a period of 30 years.
Cloud
A mass of minute water droplets.
Coast
The boundary between land and sea including the strip land that borders the sea shore.
Coastline
The boundary between the land and the sea.
Continent
One of the parts in which earth's crust is divided that rises above depressions of ocean basins
Continental platform
The land areas of continent together with the continental shelf that surrounds it.
Convection
A process of heat transfer within the atmosphere which involves the movement of the medium itself.
Core
The central portion of earth's interior. It is composed of a mass of nickel - iron.
Crust
The outermost shell of the earth. Its thickness varies from 6 to 60 km.
Demography
The empirical, statistical and mathematical study of population.
Density
The mass of a substance per unit volume. It is expressed in kgcm-3.
Desert
An area of the earth's surface where vegetation and animal life is considerably united or non-existent as a result of low precipitation.
Dew
The deposition of water droplets on the ground and objects.
Distributary
A river channel that branches off from the main stream without rejoining it.
Drizzle
A form of precipitation in which the water droplets are very fine (<0.5mm) and are close together.
Eco system
A community of plants and animals sharing a given environment, together with the non living habitat that they occupy.
Environment
In biogeography, the sum of physical, chemical and biological conditions experienced by an organism including soil, water, light, neighbourhood vegetation individuals of its own sort and members of other species.
Epi-centre
The point on the earth's surface immediately above the sesmic focus or origin of an earthquake
Equatorial climate
A climate type found in low lying areas between latitudes 100 N and 100 S.
Equatorial Rain forest
 A type of vegetation dominated by very small trees that grows in equatorial regions.
Equinox
One of the two dates in the year when day and night are of equal length throughout the world.
Evaporation
It is the process in which liquid changes into gases.
Exosphere
The boundary between the earth's atmosphere and inter planetary space. It extends from about 400 km above earth's surface.
Extinct Volcano
A volcano that was active once in the geological past but which is not active today with no prospect of any future activity.
Extrusive Rock
Igneous rock formed by the cooling and solidification of magma that has poured out to the surface of earth.
Fog
Droplets of water suspended in the lower layers of the atmosphere resulting from the condensation of water vapours.
Frost
A weather condition that occurs when the air temperature is at or below 00 C.
Geography
The study of the features of the earth's surface, including their spatial distribution and interrelationships and the interaction of man with them.
Geoid
The theoretical shape of earth based on estimates of its mass, elasticity and speed of rotation on ignoring surface irregularties.
Geology
The study of the structure and composition of the earth.
Geomorphology
The study adn interpretation of the origin and development of land forms on the earths surface.
Globe
A small scale spherical model of the earth, usually showing the main surface features, chief towns and political boundaries.
Glacier
A mass of ice that moves under the influence of gravity along a confined course away from its source area.
Gorge
A deep valley with steep and rocky side walls.
Gulf
A sea inlet that is larger and more enclosed then a bay and penetrates further inland.
Hail
Precipitation in the form of pellets of ice that develops in and fall from a cloud.
Hemisphere
Half of sphere i.e. plane passing through the centre of earth dividing it into two hemispheres.
Hill
A rounded elevation of earth's surface which is of lower altitude than mountain and with less steeply inclined sides.
Horse Latitudes
Zones of high atmospheric pressure occurring over the oceans in latitudes between 300- 350 N & 300 - 350 S.
Human Geography
The geographic study of phenomena of the earth's surface which are due or relate directly to the activities of man.
Hydrology
The study of water on earth, includes its chemical and physical properties.
Hygrometer
An instrument that measures the relative humidity of the atmosphere.
Iceberg
A large mass of ice floating in the sea.
Igneous Rock
Rocks that are solidified from molten magma.
Insulation
The radiation energy that reaches the surface of earth from the sun.
Intrusive Rock
Igneous rock that have solidified below the earth's surface.
Ionosphere
That part of the earth's atmosphere extending upwards above the stratosphere from an altitude of about 60 km.
Isthmus
A narrow bridge of land with water on either side that connects two larger bodies of land.
Lagoon
A shallow stretch of water that is separated from the open sea by a barrier such as a spit or bay mouth bar.
Lake
A body of water that lies in a hollow in the earth's surface and is entirely surrounded by land.
Land breeze
A cool wind that blows from the land to the sea during the night.
Land form
Any feature of the earth's surface that posses a particular shape and form.
Landscape
The visual sum of all the landforms in an area together with the vegetation and the land use that is employed.
Magma
Molten rock material charged with gases and at a very high temperature lying beneath the earth's surface.
Mantle
The portion of the interior of the earth lying beneath the crust and above the core.
Map
The representation on a flat surface of all or part of the earth's surface, or some other celestial body such as the moon.
Meander
A pronounced curve or loop in the course of river channel.
Mechanical Weathering
The breakup of rock by process of weathering that do not involve chemical change.
Meridian
A line of longitude passing from North to the South pole and forming half of the great circle
Mesopause
A temperature discontinuity in the ionosphere at the altitude of 80-90 km.
Mesosphere
A layer in the atmosphere extending between the stratosphere and the mesosphere
Metamorphic Rock
Rocks formed when pre-existing sedimentary or igneous rock is altered as a result of changes in physical or chemical conditions.
Monsoon
A large scale seasonal reversal of winds, pressure and rainfall in the tropics.
Mortality
The number of deaths within a given period and area.
Oasis
A fertile path in an arid area at the water table reaches or is very close to ground surface.
Ocean
The vast expanse of salt water that covers over 70% of the earth's surface.
Orbit Of The Earth
The earth's annual path around the sun. It is elliptical in shape
Ozone Layer
A zone within the atmosphere, generally between 20 and 50 km, where ozone forms in its greatest concentration.
Pass
A route way   through a mountain range that follows the line of a col or a gap.
Petrology
The study of all aspects of rocks, including mineral composition, texture, structure, origin, occurance, alteration and relationship with other rocks.
Physical Geography
The study of the features of the earth, which form the environment of man and their development with other rocks.
Plateau
An extensive elevated area of relatively flat land.
Pole
The two extremities of the earth's axis of rotation forms the poles i.e North Pole and South Pole.
Political Geography
The Geography of political phenomenon, including states and frontiers, their variations and inter-relationships, and their form and impact on the earth's surface.
Population
The total number of in-habitat of a city, country or other unit of area.
Population Density
A measure that relates the size of population to the area of land that it occupies.
Rain gauge
An instrument designed to measure rainfall.
Relativity humidity
The ratio expressed as a percentage between the amount of water vapour actually present in an air mass and the maximum amount that the air mass could hold at that temperature.
Rift valley
a flat bottomed valley formed by the sinking of the ground between two nearly parallel faults.
Rotation of earth
The rotation of earth from W to E around its own axis is called rotation.
Storm
A severe atmospheric disturbance with very strong winds.
Stratosphere
That layer of earth's atmosphere that lies between tropopause and stratopause
Terrace
A relatively flat strip of land that forms a half or bench.
Thermograph
A self recording thermometer.
Thermometer
An instrument for measuring temperature.
 
U-shaped valley
 
the typical form of a valley through which a glacier formerly flowed.
Weathering
The process that results in the breakdown of rocks and minerals in silts.

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